The Soule Entrepreneurial Institute

What would you do if someone said that you could have a billion dollars, as long as you returned it after a year?

Media talks about a few things when examining causes of the credit crisis
1. Under regulation
2. Greedy, over leveraged wall street investments.
3. Defacto government backing of risky mortgages.

While doing some research of my own, I uncovered another factor that could have accelerated all three elements. It has to do with the fact that from 2003 to 2006, big players could borrow money for virtually nothing.

This is a graph of Real Interest Rates for the last 40 years.

Explanation: (Real Interest Rate = Interest - Inflation)
Which means that if you lend your friend $1.00, he may agree to pay you $1.05 in a year. If the value of the dollar falls 5% due to inflation, then that $1.05 will buy less stuff now than your $1.00 could have bought one year ago. Essentially, you paid him a quarter of a cent to borrow your dollar for a year. That is what real interest rate measures.

Now look at the graph. For about a three year period starting before 2003, real interest is below zero. This was essentially a period of free money. Institutions could borrow as much money as they wanted. How is this possible?

Here is a graph of rates set by the federal reserve. During the same period in the early 2000's. The fed dropped rates dramatically, letting real interest slide below zero and facilitating massive borrowing.

Where was all of this money going?
Real Estate.

When the Fed dropped interest rates, money became free, that money went into real estate, and home prices increased.

When the fed came to it's senses and raised rates, real interest moved above zero, firms could no longer borrow irresponsible sums of money, investors stopped throwing funds at real estate, and home prices started to plummet; causing a global panic, and a stock market spiral; while taking down commercial banks, AIG, Fannie and Freddie, and all six American investment institutions.

And that is the cost of free money.

Some say that the bubble had been in the works for much longer than that. Here you can see where Nixon decoupled the US currency from a gold backing. Without this backing, the government was able to print more money than it could pay back. This excess printing increases the quantity of money and therefore decreases its value. This trend is reflected in the consumer price index starting in the 1970s.


11/30/2008 17:22

Very interesting. We arrived here by a series of events...."equal lending" - signed in by Clinton Admin, 911, Stock market crash, Feds react, Bush says spend your money, everyone's high on free money!!!

08/20/2009 19:57

this is interesting. good research for sure.

one point. the government is not actually "printing" more physical currency (bills and coins).

that said, the fed does have the ability to control the amount of money in circulation. they can do this in one of two ways.

1) increase/decrease the cost of money by raising/lowering the rates banks pay the fed to borrow money

2) require banks to keep a larger/smaller percentage of cash on-hand (reserve requirement), thus decreasing/increasing the amount they can lend

anyhow, i just hate the term "printing money," it's a misnomer.


04/26/2012 22:08

This is the perfect blog for anyone who wants to know about this topic. The article is nice and it’s pleasant to read. I have known very important things over here. I admire the valuable advice you make available in your expertly written content. I want to thank you for this informative read; I really appreciate sharing this great.


Leave a Reply.